Faulty Three-way Catalyst Converter Bank 1
Intake Air Leaks
Faulty Oxygen (O2) Sensor
Faulty Fuel injector(s)
Leaking Fuel Injector (s)
Faulty Spark plugs
Improper Ignition Timing
Faulty Engine Control Module (ECM)
Dirty Air Filter
Engine Light ON (or Service Engine Soon Warning Light)
The Engine Control Module (ECM) monitors the switching frequency ratio of heated oxygen sensors 1 (front O2 sensor) and heated oxygen sensors 2 (rear O2 sensor).
A three way catalyst converter (Manifold) with high oxygen storage capacity will indicate a low switching frequency of heated oxygen sensor 2. As oxygen storage capacity decreases, the heated oxygen sensor 2 switching frequency will increase.
When the frequency ratio of heated oxygen sensors 1 and 2 approaches a specified limit value, the three way catalyst malfunction is diagnosed.